Nokia is following a cloud agnostic approach, and supports multiple VIMs and Hypervisor layer software, provided by partners. It has demonstrated interoperability VMWare, EXSi, KVM and Redhat OpenStack and HP Helion OpenStack. NetAct continues its prominent role in NOKIA’s software stack, handling EMS/NMS duties for both traditional and virtualized elements. The focus of the service creation and orchestration appears to be on a relatively small number of defined network-service templates (e.g.; vEPC), rather than product-offer innovation. ARG assumes that another layer of catalog/orchestration/product creation sits ‘above” this portfolio is most operators.